PGA golf betting odds for players to win the 2016 Dean & DeLuca Invitational

While the meltdown is not a good sign, Jordan Spieth did miss the cut the week before at the Players in his first start since the Masters so he is rounding into form and he did tie for 2nd place in this tournament last year.

Kevin Na has one career win in 314 starts. Could he win again this year? Maybe, but who wants to bet on it?

2. Ryan Palmer missed the cut last week. Louis Oosthuizen’s lone PGA win remains the 2010 British Open and he missed the cut last week.

Jason Bohn – 100 to 1 odds

Bill Haas tied for 43rd place last week. Matt Kuchar has not won a PGA Tour event in over two years now and he should be higher odds to win this week.

Boo Weekley won this tournament in 2013. He won the Puerto Rico Open for his first career win at the end of March. Chris Kirk, Charl Schwartzel – 35 to 1 odds each

3. Kevin Na, Louis Oosthuizen, Patrick Reed, Jim Furyk – 33 to 1 odds each

6. Haas has six PGA Tour wins and he was second at the Valspar in March so he’s a mild threat to win this week. Marc Leishman has one career win in 188 starts. Toms has 13 career PGA Tour wins including a major but he’s not won a tournament since 2011.

5. He’s a mild threat here to get his 6th PGA win here. Jordan Spieth was in position to win last week at the Byron Nelson playing with Brooks Koepka in the final pairing Sunday just two strokes back but Spieth shot a 74 and ended up tied for 18th place. Don’t be fooled, though, as Kuchar also finished 3rd at the Players but that is not winning. Charley Hoffman – 25 to 1

Other than a 5th place finish at the Arnold Palmer in March, Zach Johnson has not played well enough to win in 2016. Jimmy Walker, Brandt Sendeker, Danny Lee, Jason Dufner – 40 to 1 odds each

T-19. Scott won this tournament in 2014 beating Jason Dufner in a playoff. After missing the cut in his two previous starts, Jimmy Walker tied for 24th last week. Kevin Chappell – 28 to 1

T-17. He has three PGA Tour wins but his last win was in 2010.

T-13. Schwartzel won the Valspar Championship in March and he could play well this week.

Colt Knost is 30 and he’s yet to win on tour but he tied for 3rd at the Players and was 4th last week in his last two starts. Players like Phil Mickelson, Lee Trevino and Zach Johnson are tied for the second most wins with two each.

T-11. Jim Furyk has one win on tour since 2010 and he’s making just his third start back after wrist surgery. Colt Knost, Tony Finau, Marc Leishman, Kevin Kisner, Patton Kizzire – 50 to 1 odds each

1. Adam Scott has two wins in 2016 and 13 total wins on the PGA Tour. On top of that, Bohn suffered a heart attack during the Honda Classic back in February. Adam Scott – 11 to 1

The 2016 Dean & DeLuca golf tournament on the PGA Tour is taking place this week from May 26-29, 2016, at the Colonial Country Club located in Fort Worth, Texas. Here is a list of the betting odds for the PGA golfers to win the 2016 Dean & DeLuca Invitational.

Jason Bohn only has two career wins and his last win was in 2010 and he’s missed the cut in his last three PGA Tour starts. Kirk missed the cut in his last start at the Players. Patton Kizzire is 30 and still looking for his first PGA Tour win.

Boo Weekley – 80 to 1 odds

4. But Jason Bohn did finish tied for 2nd in this tournament last year just one stroke off the lead.. Zach Johnson does have two wins in this tournament (2010, 2012).

Jason Dufner has a win in 2016 and he’s finished second in this tournament twice in the past (2012, 2014). Charl Schwartzel tied for 58th place last week but that was his first tournament since he missed the cut at the Masters. Zach Johnson – 22 to 1

Matt Kuchar shot -14 under last week to finish alone in 3rd place at the Byron Nelson. That was the last of his three PGA Tour wins.

T-7. Patrick Reed has finished alone in 2nd place three times this season but has not won a tournament since January of 2015. Brandt Snedeker has missed the cut in his last two starts and in three of his last four tournaments but he did tie for 2nd place here last year just one stroke off the lead.

Since winning the Texas Open for his 4th PGA Tour win on April 21st, Charley Hoffman finished 11th at the Zurich Classic, missed the cut at the Players and finished tied for 12th last week at the Byron Nelson. Matt Kuchar – 14 to 1

David Toms won this tournament in 2011. At age 32, Kevin Kisner has one career win and he missed the cut in his last two starts. Chappell is lower odds here because he finished alone in 2nd place at the Players in his last start. Nuff said.

Notables

At age 29, Kevin Chappell is still looking for his first PGA Tour win. In his last four tournaments he’s failed to crack the top 25 and he finished last week tied for 66th. Bill Haas, Ryan Palmer – 45 to 1 odds each

Adam Scott finished tied for 12th at the Players two weeks ago in his last start. Danny Lee has one win on tour and he finished tied for 18th last week. Tony Finau tied for 12th last week. Chappell also finished alone in 2nd place at the RSM Classic and the Arnold Palmer this season so he’s been close to winning but he’s still a maiden on tour.

Chris Kirk is the defending champion in this tournament but that was the last of his four PGA Tour wins. He’s a big threat this week to win.

At odds of 6 to 1, Jordan Spieth is the betting favorite this week to win the 2016 Dean & DeLuca Invitational. Then a few notable golfers with much higher odds are listed along with comments why.

Good luck to all the PGA golfers and especially the bettors this week at the 2016 Dean & DeLuca Invitational at Colonial in Fort Worth, Texas!

The Dean & DeLcua Invitational dates back to 1946. Jordan Spieth – 6 to 1

Listed below are the betting odds and comments for each player who has odds of 50 to 1 or less to win this week. Ben Hogan holds the record for most wins in the tournament with five

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Biggest Gambling Countries In The World

Although the government has imposed an entry fee of S$100 ($80.50) for citizens entering the casino, the country’s gaming revenue is expected to hit $6.4 billion in 2011 and outpace Las Vegas.

Las Vegas is well-known as the gambling industry of the world; however, American people are not the biggest gamblers on Earth. Reportedly, over 75 percent of adult Canadians took part in the games last year in which the most popular games are lotteries and Scratch and Win cards.

Singapore

Italy

Gaming Losses Per Adult: $1,288

Gaming Losses Per Adult: $1,174

Related links:

Canada

Gaming Losses Per Adult: $553

Finland

The most favorite gambling activity in Italy is electronic gaming machine. According to business advisory firm MAG Consulenti Associati, the electronic gaming makes up half of Italy’s total gaming revenues in first half of 2011.

Singapore offered the very first casino some years ago which then became the world’s third largest-gaming center after Macau and Las Vegas.

Gambling’s Famous Icons

Australia

Gaming Losses Per Adult: $1,174

Gaming Losses Per Adult: $517

Gaming Losses Per Adult: $1,288

Era of Online Gambling

Top Online Gambling Mistakes

Gaming Losses Per Adult: $517

Gaming Losses Per Adult: $568

Australia: Biggest Gambling Country in the World

Interestingly enough, the country’s national lottery company, Veikkaus, belongs to the government and is operated by the ministry of education. Most profits go to education, arts and culture.

Gaming Losses Per Adult: $568

Australia is the craziest country when it comes to gaming and gambling. Otherwise, Australia is the only country that allows online bets on sports but prevents gamblers from using the Internet to place bets during live games.

Gaming Losses Per Adult: $553

The potash-rich province of Saskatchewan is home to the biggest gamblers in Canada. Furthermore, the slot machines named pokies are the most favorite game in Australia with an estimated number of 75-80 percent of problem gamblers. In this country, gaming companies bet people on whether the central bank’s interest will increase or not. H2 Gambling Capital has released the list of biggest gambling countries due to average gaming losses.

How to Bet Proposition Bets at a Sportsbook by RJ Bell

An artificial head-to-head matchup involves competitors in an event like a golf tournament or auto race who are indirectly competing against each other since in reality they are competing against everybody in the field, not just one other competitor. If her opponent pulls off the upset, $100 bet on the underdog would profit $360 (plus the return of the $100 risked).

It is very important to note that not all the competitors in an event may be listed, so another betting option is on the “field” which includes all other competitors not listed. For example, you can bet on:

Matchup Betting

“Betting to Win” an outcome event like The Masters is the most common way to wager on individuals competing for a particular non-team title. The Imperial Palace Casino’s sportsbook is well-known for the enormous number of prop bets offered.

For example, if Serena Williams faced an overmatched opponent in the U.S. . For more information on how this works, be sure to check out How to Read the Money Line.

What will be the exact margin of victory

Betting to Win

For non-team sports like golf, boxing, tennis and NASCAR, “Matchup Betting” offers an alternative to simply betting on the event’s winner. However, many sportsbooks also offer proposition bets (or props short) for gambling on non-team sports like golf, tennis, boxing and auto racing – including NASCAR – due to their growing popularity. These artificial matchups are also fake in the sense that bookmakers are the ones creating them – solely for betting purposes – and different books will often offer different matchups. The same holds true for major team sports like NFL and college football, NBA and college basketball and MLB baseball. The two main ways of wagering on non-team sports are “Betting to Win” an event and “Matchup Betting” which pits an individual against another individual or a group of individuals.

Betting sides and totals on major sports like baseball, basketball and football are the most common wagers available everywhere. “Matchup Betting” generally involves an individual going up against another individual in a head-to-head event, such as a tennis match, and the odds are determined using the money line. Props, also known as exotic wagers, are also extremely popular on high-profile team sporting events like the Super Bowl in Las Vegas .

What team will win the coin toss

What player will score the game’s first touchdown

Every $400 bet on Serena nets a $100 profit if she wins (plus the return of the $400 risked). So be aware of all your wagering options and don’t miss out on the excitement non-team sports have to offer with prop betting!

RJ Bell

©Pregame.com 2006

Website: http://www.Pregame.com

Here’s how the money line would be listed: Serena Williams -400 / #102 Ranked Opponent +360.

Furthermore, a tennis match would be considered a tournament-style head-to-head matchup since the competitors involved directly play against each other in the event. A NFL future bet on a team to win the Super Bowl might be 20/1 in the preseason; but by midseason, their odds might decrease to 10/1 if they turn out to be legitimate championship contenders. In exchange for a lesser payout, field bettors gain the advantages of having more than one entrant that can win for them. The odds on a “field” bet are typically comparable to a bet on the favorite in order to protect sportsbooks from taking a big hit if a major upset occurs. For example, betting on the 2006 Masters golf tournament now might get you much better value on Tiger Woods, who may be 10/1 at this moment but dip to 6/1 closer to the event if he is on a roll.

Contributed by:

As you can see, there’s much more to betting than simply totals and sides, especially when it comes to gambling on non-team sports.

Group matchups are another way “matchup betting” is used which is particularly popular in golf and auto racing events like NASCAR, where you can select whether a leading competitor or a few other lesser competitors will finisher higher amongst the group, with the odds again based on money lines. Unlike team sports such as football, non-team sports also have multiple events over the course of a year, so “Betting to Win” obviously happens much more frequently than a once a year NFL futures bet on the Super Bowl winner does. Other examples of props for non-team sports include what racing team will finish highest in a particular NASCAR race (Chevy, Ford or Dodge) or how many rounds will the fight between Mike Tyson and Kevin McBride last (Over/Under 8.5 rounds). Since golf and NASCAR both have pre-qualifying, not everybody makes the cut to the final day of competition, and these group matchups require all individuals to qualify in order to be eligible for action. Open tennis tournament, a reasonable money line would require Serena bettors to risk $400 to win $100 while a $100 bet on her opponent would win $360.

Before every major event in non-team sports like golf, tennis and auto racing, futures are set by oddsmakers. An example with team sports would be NFL futures, where you often can get much higher odds on a team by betting before the season starts.

Proposition bets for non-team sports are not limited to “Betting to Win” an event and “Matchup Betting” but those are the primary ways to wager on them. These are not fixed and are adjusted by sportsbooks several times leading up to the event and are sometimes released months before an event.

The main advantage of futures is that you can get appealing odds by betting far in advance of when the event takes place

Biggest Gambling Countries In The World

Gaming Losses Per Adult: $1,288

Related links:

Gambling’s Famous Icons

Finland

Gaming Losses Per Adult: $553

Era of Online Gambling

Gaming Losses Per Adult: $553

Australia

The potash-rich province of Saskatchewan is home to the biggest gamblers in Canada. In this country, gaming companies bet people on whether the central bank’s interest will increase or not. Furthermore, the slot machines named pokies are the most favorite game in Australia with an estimated number of 75-80 percent of problem gamblers. Although the government has imposed an entry fee of S$100 ($80.50) for citizens entering the casino, the country’s gaming revenue is expected to hit $6.4 billion in 2011 and outpace Las Vegas.

. H2 Gambling Capital has released the list of biggest gambling countries due to average gaming losses.

Canada

Gaming Losses Per Adult: $1,174

Gaming Losses Per Adult: $517

Australia is the craziest country when it comes to gaming and gambling. Reportedly, over 75 percent of adult Canadians took part in the games last year in which the most popular games are lotteries and Scratch and Win cards.

Italy

Gaming Losses Per Adult: $1,288

Singapore

Gaming Losses Per Adult: $517

Gaming Losses Per Adult: $1,174

Gaming Losses Per Adult: $568

Las Vegas is well-known as the gambling industry of the world; however, American people are not the biggest gamblers on Earth. Most profits go to education, arts and culture.

Top Online Gambling Mistakes

Gaming Losses Per Adult: $568

Singapore offered the very first casino some years ago which then became the world’s third largest-gaming center after Macau and Las Vegas. Otherwise, Australia is the only country that allows online bets on sports but prevents gamblers from using the Internet to place bets during live games.

The most favorite gambling activity in Italy is electronic gaming machine. According to business advisory firm MAG Consulenti Associati, the electronic gaming makes up half of Italy’s total gaming revenues in first half of 2011.

Australia: Biggest Gambling Country in the World

Interestingly enough, the country’s national lottery company, Veikkaus, belongs to the government and is operated by the ministry of education

AIDS Patient Zero – InfoBarrel

. Somewhere, there was a Patient Zero, the epidemiological well-spring from which this plague spewed forth.

The direct lineage of HIV-1 was traced to two groups of mutations that formed in the primates that carried the simian version.  One of the groups was dated to between 1847 and 1907; another subgroup dated to between 1606 and 1871.  HIV-2 made the leap most likely between the date range of 1856 and 1922.  Thus, it can be seen some prototypical version of the AIDS virus can be dated to the early 17th century.

In the end one can see there is no modern-day “Patient Zero”.

Gaëtan Dugas died in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, on March 30, 1984, at the age of 31.  His cause of death was kidney-failure brought on by his weakened condition from an onslaught of infections and ailments from AIDS.

Rayford lived in a brownstone in a poor neighborhood in St. From a front-line perspective

The End of Days was seemingly at hand.

There is an apocryphal story that Patient Zero was really Patient “O” (as in the 15th letter of the English alphabet, first letter of the word “Omega” for the last letter of the Greek alphabet, ?).  Furthermore, it was alleged that a journalist misinterpreted the “O” (for “?”), and instead wrote up his report, referring to the AIDS’ source as “Patient 0” [“zero”] instead.

He was admitted with multiple, and strange, symptoms (given his tender age). Doctors, helpless to find the cause of death for the Noe family, preserved some tissue samples.  In 1988, further testing showed Noe, his wife, and his daughter had all been HIV-positive

The dubious distinction of being America’s “Patient Zero” – the first documented and verifiable case of AIDS in the country – belongs not to Dugas but to a mildly mentally retarded black teenager named Robert Rayford (born ca. Memory Elvin Lewis

Dr. Kramer was a writer in New York and a part of the gay culture.  He, however, decided that merely watching his friends die quietly wasn’t enough. 

Dugas may have personally, and directly, been responsible for dozens of AIDS cases (and no telling how many more indirectly), but he did not bring AIDS to the US, nor was he the first confirmed AIDS victim.  As noted, several California men and some Haitian immigrants were found later to have succumbed to the disease before Dugas.

Grethe Rask was a Danish surgeon who had traveled to Zaire in 1972 to lend medical aid for the sick there.  She returned to Denmark in 1976 and became relentlessly ill.  Her symptoms confounded her colleagues.  She died in December 1977.  Several years later in 1984, it was confirmed through testing she was HIV-positive.  During her time in Zaire, it was known she was directly exposed to blood – it is believed this was the source of her infection.

Diverting conversations occurred between Rayford and his primary care givers when questioned about his sexual activities.  His doctors had not considered homosexuality initially, and all conversations, such as they were, seemed to be taken as referring to female sexual contacts.

Tracing backward from Haiti (the source of the US strain in 1966) put the disease firmly in Central Africa.  

In his wake, one of the unfortunate legacies he left was a renewed homophobia relative to male flight attendants.  They became a lightning rod for America’s fear and anger over AIDS and its links with homosexuality.  “Patient Zero”, Gaëtan Dugas, was reviled; in death he was even accused of bringing HIV to North America and spreading it around the country.

Instead, about the only thing that can be said of HIV is that its “Ground Zero” location was almost certainly Central Africa.  

Gay and straight partiers alike finally found their Valhalla, however, in New York City in a crummy little club in the 1970s called Studio 54.  This rat hole was converted into a hot spot known all over the world.  Celebrities fell all over themselves to get in and be seen there.  Its allure was its faux air of exclusivity.  No club before or since carried the cachet of Studio 54.  Co-founded and owned by a cabaret-style, (almost a caricature) flamboyantly gay man, Steve Rubell, and a straight-laced heterosexual lawyer, this kitschy club defined hipsters in the Seventies. 

He started out as a hairdresser.  Wanting to travel, this French-speaking Canadian learned that flight attendants for Air Canada had to be bi-lingual.  He moved to Vancouver and learned English to qualify for the job.  He found work as a flight attendant on Air Canada.  This career choice allowed him the freedom to move around the world, visiting exotic locales, and meeting many strange men for anonymous sexual encounters.  In 1977, he was legally married in Los Angeles, California, in an illegal attempt to gain United States citizenship.

For one gay man, however, being a steward was all he’d needed to satisfy both his wanderlust and his physical lust. 

And the real Patient Zero – the HIV-Adam or HIV-Eve – lived and most likely died there, somewhere in the Congo, unknown and unrecognized for the catastrophic role he or she would play in human history. 

The teen seemed stabilized by late 1968 (when he was around 15 years old).  He had been transferred to Deaconess Hospital by then, and in March 1969, however, all of his symptoms reappeared and rapidly worsened.  His breathing labored; his white blood cell count (as part of routine blood work) was noted to have dropped dramatically.  The only thing concurred at the time was that Rayford’s immune system had been somehow compromised.  He developed a fever and died either in the late hours of May 15, 1969, or the early hours of May 16 (sources differ).  His primary physician recalled, “Eventually his entire body constituted almost one wave of hard lumps and watery swellings.”

Anal scarring also indicated repeated sexual penetration.

Ground Zero

One such mystery concerned the AIDS epidemic in America.  As long as the killer remained comfortably within the gay community not much was done to investigate.  As soon as AIDS found its way into the heterosexual population, though, suddenly America’s interest in ferreting out the cause was paramount.  Panic stricken virologists and other epidemiologists worked feverishly to isolate the source of this sexually transmitted disease first endemic among homosexual men. 

This doctor handled, and talked with (though reported as largely uncommunicative), Robert Rayford personally for a period during Rayford’s confinement, and also attended Rayford’s autopsy, confirming the KS diagnosis and noting the preservation of tissue samples that later were shown to carry the variant of the HIV-1 virus.

The airline industry developed glamour.  The titillation of a sexy stewardess in uniform, pandering to any business traveler’s ego, was priceless.  These were women without boundaries, women who went anywhere, anytime.  Therefore, they must be promiscuous.  The unspoken possibility of sex with a globe-trotting gal was also alluring.  Married women were aggressively discouraged from working as stewardesses.  The single women, all within a certain preferred range of body type, height, and attractiveness, were wanton women (in the minds of the average male of the day).  Although morbid obesity was not the problem in the 1940s it is today, there were no “big girls” on board.

Gaëtan Dugas, the narcissistic and embittered flight attendant, alternately feeling morose and spiteful about his condition, was given the code name “Patient Zero”, the source of the AIDS epidemic in North America. 

The music was disco, the dance beat adapted from gay men and their party scene.  The mock S&M dance moves, the sweaty bodies, the throb of the music, the drugs consumed, and the fact that not just anyone could get in heightened its allure.

Homophobia was so great by the late 1950s almost no airlines in the United States would hire men as flight attendants – even Eastern and Pan Am stopped hiring stewards.  Stewardesses, however, were very desirable.  They were marketed as young, beautiful, and sexually available–this was hardly an acceptable career choice for any he-man.  In the same way that the sexual orientation of male nurses was suspect, only “pansies” wanted to be stewards.

This virus, after much international wrangling for recognition of discovery (with a particularly aggressive and bombastic US virologist lobbying for a claim that he had found it first–he did not) was later named Human Immunodeficiency Virus or HIV. 

In America, the results of further research led to the conclusion that Gaëtan Dugas had not been the true “Patient Zero” after all.

As early as his 13th year or sooner, he was sexually active.  Beginning in 1966, he started having some physical problems that seemed chronic.  His legs swelled, and he developed sores on his genitals and body. 

Of a most enlightening nature was Rayford’s adamant refusal of any rectal exams.  It seemed that he may have been exposed to homosexual activity (assuming the submissive role in anal intercourse).  One of his attending physicians believed that he had been a victim of sexual abuse (a very likely scenario considering Rayford’s socio-economic background).  He could also have been “pimped out” against his will by someone who procured males to engage with him.  To date, this aspect of his life is unclear.

He led doctors to believe any of his sexual activities were strictly heterosexual, even claiming at one point to having a girlfriend (who failed to surface at the time).  [This female was found some time later and was found to be in perfect health, relative to HIV and AIDS, from which one can only surmise she and Rayford had no intimate sexual intercourse or such activities were rare enough she was not exposed to critical levels by whatever ailed him.]

“I’m Candy – Fly Me!”

But, it doesn’t end there. 

Before Robert Rayford in the US, there was a possible case found in a dead Jamaican native named Ardouin Antonio.  He came to the US in 1927.  He was working as a shipping clerk for a clothier when he died at age 49 on June 28, 1959, in Manhattan.  He had developed a very rare kind of pneumonia, seemingly out of the blue.  Decades later the doctor who had performed Antonio’s autopsy was asked to re-evaluate the case.  Did he think Antonio possibly died of AIDS?  “You bet . Louis, Missouri.  His mother’s name was Constance Rayford, and he had a brother named George.  Rayford was described as slender.  His retardation left him relatively uncommunicative from shyness. 

Thus, by the late 1940s male flight attendants were not only undesirable, they were suspect as well.  Occupying a job with women that devoted itself to customer service, good manners, and fine grooming, the stewards garnered suspicions of being “queer”.

Author’s note

Larry Kramer was actively and aggressively involved with what was then known as “gay cancer” in the early 1980s when the disease first made its poisonous presence visibly known in the United States as “gay cancer”. 

False Positive

Noe’s condition stabilized, but then flared up again in 1975 (coincidentally the same year a strange disorder called “slim disease” was reported in Africa for the first time, the beginnings of epidemic AIDS).  In addition to the respiratory condition and joint pains he developed motor skill problems and dementia before he died. 

Molecular research shows the AIDS epidemic of the 1980s stemmed from a viral strain that had entered the US via Haiti about 1966.  Other strains have been isolated as well.  As in cases like Robert Rayford’s, the disease died with him (though he probably infected others, those people likely did not have access to the sheer number of sexual partners that, for example, Gaëtan Dugas had, and died before spreading it much). 

Running Dugas to ground, however, was pointless.  At the time, there were no criminal laws penalizing the willful spread of a known fatal disease (since then, law changes allow charges of attempted and pre-meditated murder to be brought in many states against anyone who is HIV-positive purposefully engaging in unprotected sexual intercourse with an unwitting partner).

Gay men realized the danger.  Many made the intuitive leap early that perhaps certain activities, such as anal intercourse, might be transmitting the causative agent.  Others flatly refused to believe that their lifestyles might be endangering the health of themselves and of others.  They felt it was a perceived backlash against gay men.  Higher-profile gay men (many closeted during their lifetimes) and activists within the gay community began dying as well as underground sub-culture members (the “Crisco, leather, and fisting” set).

The term “velvet rope” came into existence then – a red velvet rope (as one might see in a museum keeping patrons at a safe distance from a particularly priceless exhibit) became the literal and symbolic barrier between the plebes on the street and the hipsters within.  Each night crowds gathered outside Studio 54’s doors; admission was granted whimsically by a group of door men and many times by Steve Rubell himself. 

In conjunction with Studio 54, other bars for gay men to frequent thrived.  Another meeting place was the bath houses still found in many larger cities.  Once serving the utilitarian function for neighborhood residents to bathe (considering most homes up until the late 1920s did not have indoor plumbing) these quaint reminders of The Good Old Days were social gathering places for gay men.  They were prevalent in New York City and in San Francisco.  [Bette Midler, a great favorite among gay men, got her start singing in gay bath houses; her piano player in those days was songwriter/musician Barry Manilow).

Meanwhile, as a symbolic sign of the coming Armageddon, Studio 54 was forced to close its doors for liquor license violations and tax evasion; entrepreneurs Steve Rubell and his business partner were sentenced to short terms of imprisonment.  [Rubell later died of AIDS.]

Almost any medical professional worth his or her license, whenever a patient dies of a strange ailment, takes the precaution of preserving tissue and blood samples for future research.  It is extremely fortunate that some doctors going all the way back to the late 1950s had been so far-sighted.  Working backward and re-examining suspicious or otherwise unresolved deaths from contagion globally proved enriching in piecing together the history of AIDS. 

The Greek letter “?” always refers to the end of an event or series, not its beginning.  Dugas was “Patient Zero”, not “Patient ?” – if the intent was to use such a Greek designation, he would have been named “Patient Alpha” (“?” or “?”)  for “the beginning”.  It is known that Dugas from the earliest investigations, based on diagrams the CDC (and others) created interlinking sexual contacts among those diagnosed with or dead from the mystery disease, was referred to from the start as Patient Zero (not Omega or “O”).

He wrote myriad articles on the subject and penned a stage play, “A Normal Heart”, that did well.  In May 2014, this stage play was brought to the small screen.  It was presented as a movie on HBO starring Jim Parsons (of “Big Bang Theory” TV fame).  The story documented the earliest days of the AIDS epidemic in America told from the perspective of the New York City/Fire Island cohort.  It is engaging: it is what TV can do (but usually fails to do except in rare cases like this one).

Gateway to the West

First denying he was sick, he later willfully and maliciously spread the disease to unsuspecting partners.  After having casual sex in a darkened room once, a male interviewee later reported he had turned on a light in the room where Dugas lay naked on a bed.  This man spotted the lesions (Kaposi’s sarcoma) that were the classic earmarks of “gay cancer” on Dugas’ chest.  When he remarked upon it, Dugas replied sardonically, “It’s gay cancer.  Maybe you’ll get it.”

Update note:Dr. . Louis. 

AIDS is what defined the decade of the 1980s, a decade that lived in fear beneath the penumbra of a certain and tortuous death from a highly communicable pathogen. It existed as “slim disease”; the condition was universally ignored though many Africans died after mysteriously wasting away.  In 1959, about the time the Manhattan Jamaican shipping clerk died of his rare pneumonia, a blood sample from a Congolese man was taken and preserved.  Years later, this proved to be HIV-infected.  This Congolese man’s fate is unknown (whether he developed full-blown AIDS and died from it or not).  Similarly, a preserved lymph-node biopsy specimen taken from a Congolese woman in 1960 later proved to be HIV-positive.

Gaëtan Dugas was a French-Canadian born February 20, 1953.  His life was on a collision course with history.  In 1972, Dugas first became sexually active.  [He would later claim he had over 2,500 sexual partners in his lifetime, whether all male is unknown.  He may have been bisexual.] 

Years later, once medical science, and particularly genetics testing, had reached a greater level of technological advance, a revision of the “Patient Zero” findings of 1984 seemed necessary.  What was learned by later research was both fascinating and horrific simultaneously.  It turned out, HIV had not only been in the world for over a century, but it had been in the United States as early as 1966. 

By the 1950s, this homophobia was rampant, and in the conservative times of Eisenhower and McCarthyism, men were slowly pushed out of the steward jobs.

Both his wife and daughter developed an illness that mimicked his symptoms, and they died in 1977. Memory Elvin-Lewis, thank you so much for not only your contributions to science but to my humble efforts at disseminating it for general readership.  I truly appreciate it.

The criteria for entry were pure sadism: one night only women might be allowed in; other times, a sloppily dressed man might be sent away while another, looking exactly like that man but “famous”, would be let in.  Gay-themed parties were held there often, and casual sex in the bathrooms and the “exclusive” privacy lounge was common among attendees.

Mr. many cases of AIDS have been autopsied that we didn’t even know had AIDS.”

Current scientific research is clear: sometime in the 1930s, a simian form of immunodeficiency virus mutated sufficiently and made the leap across species to become a contagious disease of people. 

Gaëtan Dugas fit right in with the gay community of the bath houses.  He was blond, voluble, and open.  Sex for him was a series of anonymous engagements, many times conducted hastily in bathroom stalls.  He took on whatever he felt like.  As well as many other men, he was developing what would become known as “The Clone Look”: close-cropped hair, largish but well-groomed mustache, muscle shirts, short shorts.  [The quintessential version of “The Clone Look” would be Freddie Mercury (rock band Queen’s lead vocalist who died of AIDS) after about 1981.] 

AIDS now had a face.

By April of 1982, 248 cases of the disease were reported nationwide with many others too afraid or indifferent to see a doctor.  A virus was isolated in 1983 by French scientists (as Europeans were also recognizing and treating patients with “gay cancer”, many of whom were decidedly not gay). 

Omega Man. .   The swelling in his legs was bothersome, his genitals and legs were covered in scrofulous skin, and his testicles were severely swollen.  He was also emaciated (having lost much weight suddenly), and even though he was an African-American male he was considered “pale”.  He also had shortness of breath.  His symptoms led his caregivers at Barnes Hospital to conclude that one of his problems was lymphedema (a swelling caused by lymphatic problems).  This was only a tiny part of his health issues, however.

In 1976, a Norwegian sailor, designated with the alias “Arvid Noe”, died; his wife and nine-year-old daughter died the next year of the same wasting disease.  In 1961, the 15-year-old Noe had sailed on his first voyage to Africa.  He worked a merchant vessel that plied along Africa’s west coast from mid-1961 to mid-1962; during this voyage he was treated for gonorrhea.  He sailed again to Africa in 1964, with a port of call in Kenya in eastern Africa.  In 1966, Noe started suffering from chronic joint pain and recurrent lung infections.  By 1968, he could no longer pass a physical to sail, so he worked as a long-haul truck driver. 

The disease it spawned was rechristened, in light of its indiscriminate virology, to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome or AIDS.  That same year that 248 cases of the disease were reported, local health departments in conjunction with the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in Atlanta began investigating.

Of the 248 cases known before the detection of the virus, interviewing led to the shocking revelation that at least 40 AIDS victims had one thing in common: all had either had sex with a certain male, blond, gregarious Air Canada flight attendant, or they had sex with someone who did.  This networking connection was made in 1984, and it was critical – it meant medical and public health officials investigating the source of AIDS might have finally gotten the breakthrough they needed. 

Because of the baffling nature of his case, doctors preserved several tissue and blood samples for later evaluation.  In 1987, eighteen years after his death, molecular biologists at New Orleans’ Tulane University tested specimens of Rayford’s preserved blood and tissues.  Their findings were stunning: a virus “closely related or identical to” HIV-1 was detected.  Further confirmation testing in 1989  proved Robert Rayford (African-American teenage male of St. Louis, Missouri) was the earliest confirmed victim of AIDS in North America.

Occasionally, medical mysteries initially thought solved are found later to have very different truths at their cores.

There is an interesting correlation between homosexuality and the airline industry.  At least, there is a publicly perceived correlation as it pertains to airline flight attendants.

AIDS in the United States was isolated in pockets of contagion until the promiscuity (homosexual or otherwise) of the 1970s gave the disease a clear path of propagation in humans.  IV drug use, on the rise in the 1970s and early 1980s, also provided another avenue of blood-exchange necessary for the virus to thrive. 

The music scene was fueled by this gay celebration, none more blatantly than by a vocal group of disco hustlers calling themselves “The Village People”.  They dressed in favorite and stereotypical gay icon costumes – a policeman, a construction worker, a cowboy, a gay biker, and a Native American.  They were hugely successful for a short time with big sellers “In the Navy” and “YMCA”.  More subtly, Donna Summer performed her brand of dance music that was embraced by the gay community as was she.

In 1979, before Dugas was infected, a bisexual German concert violinist, Herbert Heinrich, died.  In 1989, after testing of medical samples from his body, it was learned he was HIV-positive. 

Certainly, the African-American teenager Robert Rayford (who had never been outside the city of his birth) was not Patient Zero, either – somebody had to give it to him in the first place.

On October 31, 1980 – ominously enough, Halloween night – the French-Canadian gay male steward Gaëtan Dugas visited a gay bathhouse for the first time on a layover in New York City.

Finally, in 1968, the boy was admitted to St. . 1952-1953).

He had a chlamydia infection (a bacterial venereal disease), clearly indicating he was sexually active.  His doctors also uncovered evidence of the herpes simplex virus and the virus responsible for Epstein-Barr.  Robert Rayford was not terribly forthcoming with his doctors, partly due to his retardation leaving him mostly uncommunicative, but also because he was embarrassed by something.

As further incentive to not hire men as flight attendants, the death of a gay steward in 1954 became a scandal sufficiently great to lead to a rash of “fag bashings” (both gay men and lesbians were targeted) in Miami, Florida.  It was one of the nation’s worst anti-gay outbreaks in history. 

Dugas remained unrepentant.  He originally denied that whatever disease it was he had could be transmitted sexually.  His own words on the subject: “Of course I’m going to have sex.  Nobody’s proven to me that you can spread cancer.”  His depraved indifference to his sexual partners’ well-being was summarized with “It’s their duty to protect themselves.  They know what’s going on out there.  They’ve heard about this disease.”  The last element of his bitterness was voiced by his wish to take others with him: “I’ve got gay cancer.  I’m going to die and so are you.” 

Less Than Zero

Good investigative work requires dogged determination.  Running an enigma to ground can take years. 

The hedonism of the 1970s raged unchecked, and by the middle of the decade “gay” culture became pop culture.  Gay male partiers in the mid 1970s found an outlet on New York’s Fire Island.  Gay men rented time-share space in houses on the island and partied their summers away “in season”. 

The commercial airlines recognized the goldmine presented by hiring female “stewardesses”.  Certainly, they were paid less.  There was also marketability in women that men did not have – women could be hawked by an airline as possible sex partners for the discriminating male traveler choosing its service over another.

Certainly it was not Gaëtan Dugas (though, like Typhoid Mary over half a century before him, many deaths could be placed squarely on his doorstep). 

This good person also kindly corrected some of the misinformation about Rayford via a personal e-mail and was also kind enough to forward professional papers on the subject.  One such paper, in Lymphology from 1973, gives, perhaps, the best clinical synopsis of the case.  Another article, entitled Documentation of an AIDS Virus Infection in the United States in 1968 (by the same doctor and others), is also a “must read” for anyone interested in the earlier origins of AIDS in America. 

Air Canada

Concern for dying gay men was not paramount on America’s mind.  As more cases of the mysterious killer emerged, the name was changed from “gay cancer” to “gay-related immune deficiency” (GRID).  This, at least, was an open recognition that whatever was causing the disease was compromising a body’s immune system.  It didn’t explain, however, the rather esoteric choice of gay men (and soon discovered, IV drug users) by an unintelligent, non-sentient pathogen as victims.  It wasn’t until the first heterosexual cases of “gay cancer” emerged that the disease was examined more closely.

A strange disease lurked among the gay denizens and creepers of the bath houses, though.  Men began dying of pneumonia and other respiratory illnesses, but only after drastically losing weight and developing horrific skin lesions on their faces, necks, backs, and chests.  This disease became known in the gay community as “gay cancer”.  It was particularly volatile, and it progressed rapidly.  Dugas caught it early, possibly with his first encounter in the New York gay bathhouse on Halloween 1980.

The Road to Zero

This makes little sense. 

The very first air flight attendants (in the 1920s) were men.  These positions were desirable; the men who did these jobs executed their duties more like up-scale, futuristic train porters and ship stewards than as menials.  As with many professions in that era (especially in service jobs such as telephone operators, bank tellers, et al) the sky porters known as “stewards” were exclusively male.  World War I saw the shift from male to female telephone operators and bank tellers; with a dearth of male workers during World War II, employers turned to the fairer sex to fill their employment needs in the airline industry, too. 

His first months in the hospital were spent with his doctors cutting back on his water and salt intake, and they wrapped and raised his legs, all to cut down on his tissue’s swelling.  Despite this, the inflammation moved up his body and into his lungs.  Antibiotics were tried in varying dosages, but Rayford’s condition continued to deteriorate. 

The discrimination in the labor market meant the United States Supreme Court had to step in and force airlines to hire male flight attendants.  This happened in 1971 after nearly 20 years of female-dominated service.  Even then, the Court’s decision forcing US airlines to hire men was greeted with derision in the press.  It also raised homophobic fears of placing men in such a servile and sexualized role. Memory Elvin-Lewis was kind enough to respond to this piece in person.

Dating America’s exposure to AIDS is irrelevant: AIDS is a global problem.  And continuing research has led to many more interesting facts about the spread of HIV.

Without a precise diagnosis, Rayford’s cause of death was attributed to the catch-all vagary “loss of vitality”.  Intractable fluid imbalance and lung disease were listed as contributors.  An autopsy revealed a surprise – his body carried a very rare cancer called Kaposi’s sarcoma internally (though he had but one external lesion on his right thigh).  [Today, this cancer and its lesions are bellwethers of AIDS.] 

***

Dugas, meanwhile, knew he was sick.  He didn’t know exactly what was wrong, but he had developed the skin lesions, associated with “gay cancer”.  But one can’t spread cancer, of course, because cancer isn’t contagious.  He indiscriminately continued having sex with men as his whims overtook him.  His “advantage” was his mobility – as a flight attendant, he might be in any part of the US, Canada, or the world on a moment’s notice.  His bitterness about having gay cancer crossed over into his lackadaisical attitude about possibly harming others.

A year earlier, a Portuguese man known only as Senhor José died under mysterious circumstances.  He was treated at the London Hospital for Tropical Diseases to no effect.  In later years, examination of preserved tissues verified he died of AIDS; the causative virus, HIV-2 was present, making him the first known confirmed victim.  Genetic research on the virus indicated he probably contracted the disease in 1966 in Guinea-Bissau (on the northwest coast of Africa).  Three gay men in California and six Haitian immigrants to the United States were later confirmed as AIDS victims from that same year.

Dr. Louis City Hospital, then transferred to Barnes Hospital (now Barnes-Jewish Hospital) in St. It was so unusual at the time

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